Illustrations from
Valenciennes - BM - ms. 99
The Apocalypse, Spanish, early 9th century
Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse




Riders on lion-headed horses
The 'Word of God'



A horse

Valenciennes - BM - ms. 0099
TITRE OUVRAGE Apocalypsis
DOMAINE Bible
DATATION 09e s. (premier quart)
ORIGINE GEOGRAPHIQUE Allemagne (ouest)
ORIGINE HISTORIQUE Rhin moyen
POSSESSEUR Saint-Amand, abbaye
Source: Bibliothèque municipale de Valencienne


Description : Les peintures, au nombre de 39, ont été exécutées avant la transcription du texte ; je les crois dues à un artiste d'origine espagnole. Dessin grossier, coloriage d'une main peu experte ; encadrements malhabiles avec grecques et entrelacs. A chaque peinture, une légende empruntée au texte de l'Apocalypse. Le texte, écrit un peu après par un scribe français, est précédé de l'intitulé suivant : « In nomine Domini nostri Jesu Christi, incipit liber Apocalypsis, quod Deus ostendit secundum Johannem. » La division intérieure est très particulière ; on compte 64 chapitres avec titre différent pour chacun d'eux. A la fin, note du copiste : « Ego Otoltus indignus praesbiter scripsi. »
Source: BnF

Description: The paintings, numbering 39, were executed before the transcription of the text; I think due to an artist of Spanish origin. Rough drawing, colouring by a hand of little expertise; clumsy frames with greeks and interlacing. In each painting, a legend borrowed from the text of Revelation. The text, written shortly after by a French scribe, is preceded by the following heading: "In nomine Domini nostri Jesu Christi, incipit liber Apocalypsis, secundum quod Deus ostendit Johannem." The internal division is very particular; there are 64 chapters with a different title for each. At the end is a copyist's note: "Ego Otoltus indignus praesbiter scripsi."


Referenced as figure 502 in The military technology of classical Islam by D. Nicolle
502. Manuscript, Apocalypse, c. 840 AD, Spanish, Bib. Munic., Ms. 99
p428. One might almost see a celebration of the revival of Asturo-Leonese cavalry in mid-9th century Christian sources (Figs. 502 and 503). The warriors shown here seem to have virtually nothing in common with their co-religionists in the rest of Europe. They may, however, be very similar to those of al Andalus who first appear in the art of the 10th century (Figs. 494Ceramic fragment from Madina al Zahra, 10th century AD, Andalusian, Madina al Zahra Museum. and 507).



Other Illustrations of Spanish Costume & Soldiers
Other 9th Century Illustrations of Costume & Soldiers





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